Horsetails are generally small "strange" looking plants. They grow from perennial
, from which grow a single hollow, jointed stem
, with bristle-like branches growing from the joints.
Horsetails reproduce by means of spores
. The spores are contained in small cones at the tips of the stem or its branches, or sometimes on a separate stalk in the spring.
In prehistoric times, some plants of this family grew to be large trees. Fossil records
show that at one time there were horsetails in New Zealand but they have long since died out. Unfortunately Equisetum arvense
has been reintroduced in recent times and is now considered to be a weed pest.